Water and water purification technologies

Scientific and technical news

UTILIZATION OF “RED MUD” BEING A PART OF NEW EFFECTIVE ADSORBENT IN WATER TREATMENT

UDC 628.542.61

S. O. Kyrii, I. V. Kosogina, I. M. Astrelin, V. Yu. Mosiyuk

National Technical University of Ukraine «Igor Sikorsky Polytechnic Institute», Kiev, Ukraine

e-mail: kosogina@email.ua

Storage of red mud, because of its large quantity and specific compounds, causes a lot of problems. Thereby, development of complex technology utilization of wastes (red mud) is the most economically and environmentally attractive way to solve the problem of red mud accumulation and obtaining of highly efficient purification reagents from secondary raw materials. The purpose of this work is synthesis and verification of efficacy of adsorption reagents that were obtained by using “red mud” in technologies of wastewater treatment from compounds of organic origin. The proposed sorption reagent derived from activated “red mud” and activated carbon brand F300 revealed sufficient sorption efficiency at wastewater treatment from the dye “Active brilliant blue KX”. At the the initial concentration of dye 10, 30, 50 mg/l dye extraction to 84–100% in following conditions was achieved: рН medium 4 – 4,3, dose of sorbent 12 g/l, asdorption duration 150 min. Conducted research revealed that synthesized sorbent based on activated “red mud” and activated carbon (where activated carbon functionates as carrier) has potential for use in water treatment to remove organic dyes.

Keywords: red mud, sorption reagent, sorption, utilization, waste, water purification.

Cite this article as: Kyrii, S.O., Kosogina, I.V., Astrelin, I.M., Mosiyuk, V.Yu. WPT STN (2017) 21:3. | Download (PDF)

06.07.2017 at 9:08 pm

RESEARCH PROCESSES OF ION EXCHANGE REMOVAL PHOSPHATES

UDC 504.45.058: 628.161.2: 628.3

N. D. Gomelia1, A. I. Petrychenko1, A. G. Trokhimenko2, Y. P. Martyniuk1

1National Technical University of Ukraine «Igor Sikorsky Polytechnic Institute», Kiev, Ukraine
2National University of Shipbuilding of Admiral Makarov, Nickolaev, Ukraine

e-mail: Petalig33@gmail.com

Phosphorus is one of the products of metabolism or degradation of microbial organisms, but its excess leads to accelerated eutrophication. The primary cause of eutrophication – is excessive concentration of nutrients in the water, including phosphates. Among the existing methods of water purification from phosphates ion exchange is the most effective and cheap one. This method is advantageous because of the possibility of processing of the regeneration solutions to produce liquid fertilizers or other useful products. Highly basic anionite AB-17-8 and low basic anionite Dowex Marathon WBA are used as the ion exchange materials. Distilled and tap water close to the characteristics of wastewater of Bortnichy aeration station was used as the medium . It was shown that the exchange capacity of anionite Dowex Marathon WBA for phosphates is low and its use for the removal of phosphates is inappropriate. The highly basic anionite AB-17-8 in chloride and in alkaline form provides effective removal of phosphates from model solutions. The influence of competing compounds of sulfate and chloride in tap water on efficiency of phosphate anions extraction was studied. Regeneration processes were investigated using solutions of sodium or ammonium chlorides in concentration of 10-15%. Method for the removal of interfering compounds of sulfates from regeneration solutions in the form of gypsum is proposed, which will allow re-use of these solutions for the regeneration of the anion exchanger.

Keywords: ion exchange, phosphate, sulfate, struvite, ammonium chloride.

Cite this article as: Gomelia, N.D., Petrychenko, A.I., Trokhimenko, A.G., Martyniuk, Y.P. WPT STN (2017) 21:12. | Download (PDF)

06.07.2017 at 8:40 pm

THE REMOVAL OF HEAVY METAL (NICKEL) IONS FROM WASTE WATERS

UDC 622.765:542.61:546.571

T. Obushenko, N. Tolstopalova, O. Bolielyi

National Technical University of Ukraine «Igor Sikorsky Polytechnic Institute», Kiev, Ukraine

e-mail: tio63@mail.ru

Solvent sublation is a combined method that includes advantages of ionic flotation and liquid extraction. This is a process in which flotation product (sublate) concentrates in a thin layer of organic liquid, which is located on the surface of aqueous phase. There are only a few scattered and unsystematic researches of solvent sublation for water treatment from heavy metal ions. However, such feature of solvent sublation as possibility of metal ions concentration in little volumes of organic solvent independently from distribution coefficient indicates perspective of this method for the treatment of waste waters polluted by heavy metals with the opportunity of metal regeneration. Solvent sublation of nickel ions from low concentrated (20 mg/dm3) aqueous solutions with the use of sodium dodecylsulphate as anionic surfactant was studied. It was discovered, that branched alcohols are better at retention of sublate than those unbranched. Thus, isoamyl alcohol is more effective for solvent sublation than pentanol. Dependences of removal ratio on pH of environment, on molar ratio of Ni2+ : surfactant were researched. The required volume of organic phase was determined. The research of nickel ions removal by solvent sublation from model solutions allowed to determine rational conditions of the process: pH 9, molar ratio of Ni2+ : surfactant = 1 : 2, volume of organic phase 5 cm3. Under these conditions removal ratio of nickel ions into isoamyl alcohol is 95,8%.

Keywords: nickel, solvent sublation, removal ratio, sodium dodecylsulphate, sublat.

Cite this article as: Obushenko, T., Tolstopalova, N., Bolielyi, O. WPT STN (2017) 21:24. | Download (PDF)

06.07.2017 at 8:10 pm

THE REMOVAL OF INDIGO CARMINE FROM WATER BY SOLVENT SUBLATION

UDC 622.765:542.61:546

T. Obushenko, N. Tolstopalova, Y. Kholmetska

National Technical University of Ukraine «Igor Sikorsky Polytechnic Institute», Kiev, Ukraine

e-mail: tio63@mail.ru

In this research, which includes the previously published works of this team on dyes removal, solvent sublation was applied in order to remove such dyestuff as Indigo carmine from model solutions. The aim of the work was to study the main principles of Indigo carmine removal from water by solvent sublation. Indigo carmine (IC, C16H8N2Na2O8S2), an anionic dye, was removed from aqueous solutions by solvent sublation of an IC–hexadecylpyridinium bromide (HPB) complex (sublate) into octanol. The effects of the following parameters on solvent sublation were experimentally studied: the molar ratio of HPB:IC, pH of aqueous phase, duration of the removal process, type and volume of organic solvent. The initial dye concentration was 10 mg/dm3. It was found that the process should be conducted under such conditions: pH 5, solvent – octanol, Schott filter nominal pore size – 16 μm, molar ratio of HPB:IC = 1:1, process duration – 20 min. According to obtained results the highest level of IC elimination that was reached within the experiment equals 95,5 %.

Keywords: dye, indigo carmine, hexadecylpyridinium bromide, solvent sublation, spectrophotometry.

Cite this article as: Obushenko, T., Tolstopalova, N., Kholmetska, Y. WPT STN (2017) 21:31. | Download (PDF)

05.07.2017 at 9:38 pm

RESEARCH INTO FACTORS OF MUTUAL INFLUENCE OF GROUND WATERS QUALITY PARAMETERS ON CHOICE OF WATER CLEANSING TECHNOLOGIES

UDC

A. Kvartenko

National University of Water and Environmental Engineering, Rivne, Ukraine

e-mail: as-755@rambler.ru

The aim of the paper is to study the mutual influence of water quality basic parameters on the selection of technological schemes and water treatment equipment, the development of the classifier of treatment technologies for multi-component ground waters. As a result of analytical and experimental research carried out the actuality of this task was established. The interconnection of the complex of compounds dissolved in ground waters (of iron, manganese, organic acids, gases, ammonium nitrogen, fluorine) with values of pH–Eh and bicarbonate alkalinity of medium with the presence of iron bacteria is shown. Main environmental factors influencing the intensiveness of metabolism of iron bacteria are shown. The structural scheme of the interconnection of components of underground waters with various physico-chemical compositions is developed. By results of studies a classifier for treatment technologies for multi-component hydro-carbonate underground waters was developed. It is determined that in substantiating the choice of the efficient water treatment technology it is necessary to take into account such factors: form of iron compounds in natural water, value of pH-Eh and bicarbonate alkalinity, presence of dissolved organic substances and gases.

Keywords: choice of water treatment technologies, classifier of technologies.

Cite this article as: Kvartenko, A. WPT STN (2017) 21:39. | Download (PDF)

05.07.2017 at 8:54 pm

EXERGY ANALYSIS OF PROCESSES OCCURING IN COOLING TOWER

UDC

O. A. Kardasevich, V. V. Chichenin, V. G. Ahrameev, N. V. Demchenko

Odessa National Polytechnic University, Odessa, Ukraine

e-mail: twf.onpu@gmail.com

The paper discusses physico-chemical processes occurring during the interaction of water environment and air in cooling tower. As the results of exergy analysis of those processes, it was found that ratio of energy and exergy flows is associated with mass transfer and heat transfer. The effectiveness of exergy transformation in the cooling tower was evaluated. The mechanism for determining the exergy losses in the local processes of mass transfer, heat transfer and dissipative effects occurring in the cooling tower is proposed.

Keywords: -

Cite this article as: Kardasevich, O.A., Chichenin, V.V., Ahrameev, V.G., Demchenko, N.V. WPT STN (2017) 21:50. | Download (PDF)

05.07.2017 at 8:40 pm

CALCULATION OF HYDRAULIC PRESSURE LOSS IN FILTERING NOZZLES OF MAGNETIC FILTERS

UDC 621.187, 621.131

V. I. Garashchenko, O. V. Garashchenko, E. Z. Malanchyk

National University of Water and Environmental Engineering, Rivne, Ukraine

e-mail: v.i.harashchenko@nuwm.edu.ua

It was proved that use of magnetic filters with ferromagnetic granular filtering masses for deep purification of technological water of heat power engineering is rational. This allows purification of the technological waters with temperature up to 500ºC and velocity of filtration up to 1000 m/h. During operation of filter the granulated medium creates hydraulic resistance when a stream of water passes through it, which is characterized by a loss of hydraulic pressure and hydraulic resistance coefficient. Based on the large amount of experimental data the improved equation for the coefficient of hydraulic resistance for granular filtering mass, in the form of ball pellets, at values of Reynolds coefficient more than 10 and analytical equations to determine the loss of hydraulic pressure ΔP were obtained. The analytical dependence of ΔP value for filtering materials both in the form of balls and mini parallelepipeds (pellets of crushed steel chips 0Х13-40Х13) were determined. Comparative calculations show that the coefficient of hydraulic resistance of chip mass is three times higher than that of the ball mass. Experiments found that for balls mass with diameter d=3,1mm, porosity ε=0,4, and velocity V=(0,4-2) m/s the value of pressure loss ΔP is 5-6 times higher compared to granules with d=6 mm , ε=0,42, V=(0,3-1,25) m/s, and almost 10 times higher than for the ball granules with d=7,9mm, ε=0,43, V=(0,3-0,8) m/s. After analyzing of the ΔP dependence on V for different diameters a conclusion can be drawn that the increase of ΔP at smaller diameters is explained by “window” geometry (air layer) between granules. The size of “window” with smaller diameters is less, so velocity of the water flow increases and ΔP value increases too.

Keywords: magnetic purification, filtering mass, hydraulic resistance.

Cite this article as:Garashchenko, V.I., Garashchenko, O.V., Malanchyk, E.Z. WPT STN (2017) 21:62. | Download (PDF)

04.07.2017 at 1:26 pm