Water and water purification technologies

Scientific and technical news

EXTRACTION OF HEAVY ISOTOPES OF DEUTERIUM, TRITIUM AND OXYGEN

O. Mosin, I. Ignatov

1 – Moscow State University of applied biotechnology, Moscow, Russia

e-mail: mosin-oleg@yandex.ru

2 – Scientific Research Centerfor Medical Biophisics, Sofia ,Bulgaria

In present paper theoretical and scientific-practical questions of clearing of drinking water from heavy isotopes D, T and 18О are considered. Studies of isotopic effects of deuterium on cells of various organisms of microbic, plant and animal origin are carried out, the conclusion is made as a result drawn on complex multifactorial influence of deuterium on an organism. Designs of the devices, allowing to receive the water depleted on 5–30 % of deuterium are given. There are cited own data and available in the sientific literature data on positive influence of deuterium depleted water on an organism.      

Keywords: deuterium, tritium, oxygen–18, heavy water, deuterium depleted water.

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22.07.2013 at 8:23 am

EXPERIENCE OF MODERN APPROACHES TO NATURAL WATER QUALITY ESTIMATION FOR THE PREDICTION OF TECHNOLOGICAL METHODS OF ITS CONDITIONING

І.S. Yezlovetska

A.V.Dumansky Institute of Colloid Chemistry and Water Chemistry of NAS of Ukraine, Kiyv

 honch@iccwc.kiev.ua 

The three basic approaches to estimation of water quality of drinking water supply according to hygienical and ecological criteria are grounded and used. The specific character of formation conditions of river waters quality is considered for chosen water objects. Their present state and degree of ecological prosperity according to integral indexes is estimated. Possibility of the usage of this water objects as potential sources for drinking water supply of rural population is established. The prediction necessity of water quality in the explored rivers basins is finded out depending on hydrological periods. The priority indexes of water quality, which are needed the application of the special technological decision are defined. The enumeration of modern natural water treatment methods is offered for contents correction of contaminating matters.

The experience concerning of modern approaches use to estimation of natural water quality is presented in the paper. There is recommended for the creation of multistage technologies for drinking water treatment with usage of biological and physical methods to prevent the disinfection by-products formation.

Keywords: water quality, hygienical and ecological criteria, priority indexes, methods of water treatment.

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19.07.2013 at 4:49 pm

ON ASSESSMENT OF THE QUALITY OF DRINKING TAP WATER IN INDUSTRIAL CITY FOR LONG PERIOD

S.V. Kapranov, G.G. Krivutsa

State Establishment  “Alchevsk city sanitary and epidemiological station Luhansk Region”

Communal Enterprise “Alchevsk Industrial management of water supply and sanitation”

Alchevsk,Ukraine

e-mail: Kapranova-volkova@rambler.ru 

The modern condition of the problem of population supply by good-quality of drinking water is presented in the article. Hygienic assessment of quality for drinking tap water of industry city Alchevsk for long-term period was executed. It was found that the main risk to the health of children and adults in connection with the use of drinking water in the raw form, due to its high level of total hardness, mineralization, sulfates and chlorides. It was shown that the quality of tap water mainly depends on the quality of water in the central water supply sources. The problems for priority implementation of measures to improve the supply and quality of drinking water were identified.

The measures to improve water quality and prevent diseases of children and adults from exposure to the water factor were developed.

Key words: drinking water quality, total hardness, mineralization, sulfates and chlorides.

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19.07.2013 at 4:40 pm

ENVIRONMENTAL AND HYGIENIC MONITORING OF PERCHLORATES IN WATERS OF DIFFERENT USE IN UKRAINE

І. Andrusishyna

SI” Institute for Occupational HealthNAMS”,Kiev,Ukraine

e-mail: irina_andrei@voliacable.com

The problem of anthropogenic pollution of the water environment by perchlorate (Pch) and its effect on the human health is discussed in the papers. Also, the physical-chemical methods of Pch determination, which can be used for analyses in various waters, are critically considered. The results of pilot researches on the content of studying Pch in drinking and natural waters in Kiev and some other regions of Ukraine are shown. The comparative assessment of determining Pch by indirect method of atomic absorption (AAS) and method of ion-exchange chromatography (IX) is given. The average content of Pch exceeded the ЕРА standards by 4-400 times in Kiev area and by 12-23 times in other regions of Ukraine. The preferential contamination of the water with Pch in the wells was determined. The high content of Pch in natural water of eastern regions of Ukraine was revealed. The obtained data can be used for revising hygienic standards for Pch in the drinking water.

Key words: perchlorate, physical-chemical methods, drinking and natural waters.

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19.07.2013 at 4:32 pm

EFFICIENCY OF ACTIVATED CARBON REGENERATION AFTER THE LONG-TERM EXPLOITATION IN FILTERS FOR TAP WATER POST-TREATMENT

L. Savchyna

InstituteofColloidChemistry and Water Chemistry (NationalAcademyof Sciences ofUkraine), Kyiv,Ukraine

e-mail: savchyna.l@gmail.com

Predominately mesoporous structured activated carbon is the best sorbent for the natural organic matter extraction from water. Mesoporous activated carbons KAU, KAU-TF and BAU were used in the adsorption filters for tap water post-treatment for a long time (more than three years). Structural-adsorptive characteristics of these carbons were estimated in the paper. The spontaneous bioregeneration takes place on the activated carbon surface. It is caused by the biofilm formation during water filtration in non-sterile conditions. As a result of this process active carbon adsorption parameters are restored, namely the part of the AC unoccupied total specific surface area is 61,1-82,9 % of the initial value, the part of the unoccupied total adsorption pore volume is 59,0-87,2 %, whereas the value of unoccupied effective supermicro- and mesopores surface can be up to 69,3-98,2%. Active carbon samples treatment with sodium hydroxide leads to a partial release of the micropores adsorption volume especially in the lower carbon bed layers by water passing. Spontaneous activated carbon bioregeneration under filtration of ozonated tap water runs more efficiently than bioregeneration after a non-ozonated water filtration under the same organic matter load on the AC. Efficiency improving of spontaneous bioregeneration after a pre-ozonated tap water filtration is caused by the transformation of organic substances molecules into a form that is more accessible to the functioning of native biofilm.

Keywords: active carbon, bioregeneration, tap water, native biofilm, eluent regeneration.

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19.07.2013 at 4:24 pm

EFFECTIVE TECHNOLOGY OF BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF HIGH CONCENTRATED WASTEWATER

L. Sabliy

National university of water management and nature resources use,Rivne,Ukraine

e-mail: larisasabliy@mail.ru

It is presented the results of plant researches of anaerobic-aerobic wastewater treatment with high contaminants of organic matter with using the fibrous carrier for microorganisms immobilization. In the using proposed technology it can achieved high oxidation capacity of bioreactors in COD, g/(m3∙day), with decrease at degree of wastewater treatment in the system of anaerobic-aerobic bioreactors: in anaerobic І and ІІ, respectively, – 6200 and 3400; in anoxidic І and ІІ, respectively, – 800 and 400; aerobic – 100; at concentrations of immobilized biomass on carriers, г/дм3, in anaerobic conditions – 20-30, anoxidic – to 15 and aerobic – to 6.

On pilot plant establishment it was obtained the high results of wastewater treatment: effect on COD – 96-98,8%, on suspended solids – 98,5-99%, on ammonium nitrogen – 98-100%; the concentrations in treated water: COD – 19-66 mg/dm3,  ammonium nitrogen – 0-0,49 mg/dm3, nitrites – 0,03 mg/dm3, nitrates – 15,8 mg/dm3, respond to norms.

In the results of eating biomass bacterial part by hydrobionts of high trofical levels of  bioreactors biocenose it is provided reduction of biomass amount, increasing its mineralization (over 50%) and reduction of wastes treatment costs.

 Key words: wastewater, biological treatment, bioreactor, anaerobic conditions, aerobic condition, carrier for microorganisms immobilization.

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19.07.2013 at 4:18 pm

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PRINCIPLES OF ACTION OF REVERSE OSMOSIS MEMBRANE FOULING INHIBITORS AND METHODS OF OPTIMAL USAGE THEREOF

Е. Orestov, Т. Mitchenko

National technical university of Ukraine “KPI”, Kyiv, Ukraine

e-mail: e.orestov@gmail.com 

The article provides an overview of the two major classes of modern inhibitors of reverse osmosis membrane element fouling used in water treatment processes, namely the phosphonate compounds and polymer acrylic acid derivatives with different functional groups. The brief characteristics of different types of fouling — colloidal, organic, inorganic and biofouling are given. Special attention is paid to physical and chemical principles of the formation of crystals of sparingly soluble salts from supersaturated solutions and the deposition of these crystals on the surface of the membrane (the phenomenon of scaling), and the factors that affect the scaling. The main mechanisms of action of inhibitors of various classes — threshold effect, effect of deformation and effect of dispersion are described. Physical and chemical factors that determine the effectiveness of the threshold effect inhibitors are analyzed. A list of the main representatives of phosphonate and polymeric reagents, range and principle of action, advantages and disadvantages of each are given, and main modern commercial antiscalants produced with the use of these reagents are mentioned. The information on the forms and methods of application of modern antiscalant reagents is given with focus on use of different filter materials, primarily ion exchange resins, as carriers of antiscalant chemicals.

Keywords: fouling, threshold effect, phosphonates, polyacrylates, reverse osmosis.

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19.07.2013 at 4:12 pm