Water and water purification technologies

Scientific and technical news

HOW DANGEROUS LEAD IN DRINKING WATER?

UDC 543.31:(546.81:628.1.033)

I. M. Andrusyshyna1, I. O. Golub1, Z. V. Maletskyi2

1DY “Institute of Occupational Health of NAMS of Ukrainу”, Kiev, Ukraine
2National Technical University of Ukraine, Kiev Polytechnic Institute, Kiev, Ukraine

e-mail: irina_andrei@voliacable.com

This review focuses on the problem of environmental pollution by lead and its impact on human health. Was provided a historical excursus on the use of human lead and product thereof. Lead is known as one of the most important types of mineral raw materials and at the same time is a global polluter, including and water. In the article summarizes the current understanding sources of receipt and the migration of lead in the environment. Lead is a substance of 1Class of danger for humans and therefore its content in food, drinking water, air and food strictly normalized. It has been shown that the major source of lead for human is drinking water. In this article also discussed issues of lead toxicity and given the toxicological characteristic of effects on human health. Covers the question risk of lead poisoning to the growing body of the child. Given recommendations to reduce the lead intake from drinking water.

Keywords: lead, drinking water, human health.

Cite this article as: Andrusyshyna, I.M., Golub, I.O., Maletskyi, Z.V. WPT STN (2016) 19:40. | Download (PDF)

17.11.2016 at 10:24 am

USING BIOCHEMICAL METHODS IN MODERN TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES OF UNDERGROUND WATER

UDC 628.161.2

A. N. Kvartenko

National University of Water Industry and Nature Management, Rivne, Ukraine

e-mail: as-755@rambler.ru

The purpose of this paper is to review the latest technologies based on biochemical method of purification of groundwater, as well as the definition of its advantages over traditional technologies. The prospects of using this method in the modern world and the ways of intensification of the biochemical method of purification of groundwater are considered. It is noted that in the present conditions an important task of intensification of existing or newly designed iron removal stations, is to transfer them from the extensive technologies to technologies that provide a high rate of oxidation of iron compounds, lead to a decrease in the volume of wash water, an increase in the duration of the filtration cycle, improve operating conditions, a decrease in capital and operating costs. Based on the results of the experience review as for using this method in the modern world, it is recognized that it is one of the possible directions of intensification at iron removal stations.
Technological schemes and parameters are also given. The optimal conditions of iron bacteria life cycle , structure of their capsule are represented . Based on a review of research the difference between the structure and physicochemical properties of sewage sludge, resulting from the use of traditional physical and chemical methods, and biological iron removal method is shown. These technologies, developed by the author. It is shown how they differ from existing technologies. The main differences between the biological and conventional physical and chemical methods of iron removal are discussed.

Keywords: biological method of iron removal, iron bacteria, biominerals.

Cite this article as: Kvartenko, A.N. WPT STN (2016) 19:51. | Download (PDF)

16.11.2016 at 5:16 pm

NEW IMPROVED STRUCTURAL SOLUTION DEVICES BIOLOGICAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT

UDC 628.356.39

I.V. Klymenko, A.V. Ivanchenko, M.D. Voloshyn

Dneprodzerzhinsk State Technical University, Dneprodzerzhinsk

e-mail: iren.klimencko@yandex.ru

Indicated urgency of modernizing existing municipal wastewater treatment plants in connection with reduction of volumes wastewater discharged by the population of Ukraine. It is shown that the biological method is preferred for most treatment plants. The aim of this work is to improve existing devices for biological treatment of municipal wastewater for use in reducing the volume of wastewater supplied to the population. Analyzed the classical scheme of biological wastewater treatment according to which the residence time of wastewater in the primary and secondary sedimentation tanks exceeds the design value by more than 3 times, and in aeration tanks in 2,7. Developed and presented new design of the combined aerotank-settler the special feature which is compactness and possibility of use for small volumes of wastewater. Offered an improved technology of biological wastewater treatment using aerotank-settler which is recommended for most municipal treatment plants of Ukraine.

Keywords: wastewater, biological treatment, activated sludge, aerotank-settler.

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06.05.2016 at 4:21 pm

ANALYSIS OF THE WORK OF MULTI-STAGE PROCESS PLANT AFTER-TREATMENT OF TAP WATER IN THE EXISTING PRODUCTION AND WAYS OF ITS IMPROVEMENT

UDC 628.196:579.262

I.Y Roi, L.K Patyuk, N.A Klimenko

Institute of Colloid and Water Chemistry named Dumansky NAS , Kiev

e-mail: roy_inka@ukr.net

Studied the microbiological indicators of water treatment plants and identified the technical and technological conditions necessary to ensure compliance with regulatory microbiological quality characteristics of purified tap water for use in the process. It was found that the actual level of microflora, which was observed in the final stage of water treatment, in some cases, have exceeded refers to the set of draft standards, namely 30 CFU / 100sm³. The intensity of the bacteria throughout the flowsheet, differ in processing steps, and in the period of operation, indicating that the trend towards the development of local and seasonal flora. Since the water samples after charcoal filters and granular activated carbon (GAC) were isolated bacteria which reduce chlorates. Culture showed high activity recovery of chlorine, which samples GAC reached 68.3%, while for bacteria isolated from water samples after a carbon filter, was 79.2%. Isolated microorganisms, reducing the oxygen compounds of chlorine, substantially reduce the effectiveness of water disinfection and disinfection equipment with sodium hypochlorite (NaClО). Identified the main sources of contamination of processing steps which can be divided into external, when microorganisms get into system equipment installation outside water entering the purification or air, and internal – is the cell, which is the development of microflora with subsequent spread of bacterial cells water flow. Оffered recommendations to improve the existing water disinfection technology, and restrict unwanted growth of microflora in the system of water purification equipment to ensure regulatory quality indicators of purified water for microbiological parameters.

Tags: potable water, granulated activated carbon (GAC), bacteria, biofilm, chlorination, sodium hypochlorite (NaClО).

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06.05.2016 at 4:14 pm

RESEARCH METHODS FOR CLEANING UNDERGROUND IRON CONTAINING WATERS FROM AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS AND AMMONIA

UDC 628.161.2

A.N.Kvartenko1, L.A.Sabliy2

1National University of Water Industry and Nature Management, Rivne

2National Technical University of Ukraine “Kyiv Polytechnic Institute”, Kiev

e-mail: as-755@rambler.ru

The aim of this work is selecting the optimal method for the purification of groundwater with different acidity and alkalinity from iron compounds and ammonium.

Research was conducted in production conditions on groundwater containing iron compounds and ammonium.  Waters belong to different classes of acidity, alkalinity and organic matter content. The research examined the effect values of pH and alkalinity on the number of iron bacteria colonies in a unit volume of water. The dependence was studded of the effect of alkalinity, pH, and contact time on the process of oxidation of ammonia by iron bacteria. The kinetics of the oxidation of organic compounds and ammonia consortia of microorganisms is studied. It is shown that the planned stops of water treatment equipment for more than three hours, there is the deterioration in the efficiency of its operating. It is connected with the development reducing bacterias of sulfate and iron in the in the filtration leyer. This process leads to the restoration of the pre-oxidized iron and the formation of nitrogen gas as a result of normal oxidation of ammonium. The process was studied, investigated the simultaneous biochemical oxidation of iron compounds, ammonia, dissolved organic at current iron removal station in bioreactors. The mechanism of biological oxidation of these compounds is shown. We carried out the spectral analysis of the biofilm from loading granules of bioreactor.

Based on the research and developed the theory of the mechanism of biological oxidation of iron compounds and ammonia, we develop, designed and recommended for introduction groundwater treatment technology.

Keywords: oxidation, iron bacteria, bioreactor, bio-physical and chemical cleaning methods, the Fenton reaction

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06.05.2016 at 4:10 pm

EVALUATION OF METHODS STABILIZATION TREATMENT OF MINE WATER (MINE M. GORKY, DONETSK)

UDC 608.2

N. Gomelya, T. Korda, J. Nosachova, M. Shuriberko T. Potylchak

National Technical University of Ukraine “Kyiv Polytechnic Institute”, Kyiv

e-mail: nezvyskaya@mail.ru

The processes of scale formation in the mine water (mine them. Gorky) at temperatures of 98 ° C and 40 ° C. The stabilization of water treatment processes, its reagent, ion exchange softening and demineralization were an object of research. Spectrophotometric, potentiometric and chemical analysis methods for identifying reagents, control of physical and chemical processes of water purification were used at the investigation. Oxyethylidenphosphonic (OEDFK) and nitrilemethylphosphonic (NTMFK) acids used as a basis for all compositions of the scale formation inhibitors (including the IIED composition). The stability of water relative to the surface deposits (at the acid processing) increases with increase of a dose of inhibitor.

Key words: scale formation inhibitor, stabilization, mine water.

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06.05.2016 at 4:05 pm

GEOCHEMICAL PECULIARITIES OF GROUNDWATER WITHIN THE TERRITORY OF LVIV TROUGH

UDC 551.49: 628.191: 550.4: 556.314: 556.38.4

R. P. Pankiv, M. V. Kost, I. I. Sakhhyuk, O. M. Maikut, O. B. Mandzya, I. P. Navrotska, R. P. Kozak

Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals of NAS, Lviv

e-mail: M_Kost_2007@ukr.net 

In this paper based on the definition of indicators of the chemical composition of the groundwater its ecological status and degree of contamination is appraised. Increased content of nitrates, silicon, alkalinity and high values of the general hardness were fixed. Deviations of physiological full value of the mineral composition of drinking water from guideline values were revealed. It was established that the formation of geochemical composition of ground water was due to the influence of factors of geological, physical, chemical and man-made origin. Recommendations for reduction of pollution of drinking water and improvement its quality were cited.

Key words: groundwater, geochemical features, degree of contamination, the correlation coefficient, factors of influence.

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06.05.2016 at 4:01 pm

POLLUTION OF NATURAL WATERS BY ARSENIC COMPOUNDS: CAUSES AND PERSPECTIVE SOLLUTIONS OF THE PROBLEM

UDC 504.06+628.16

M. Litynska, I. Astrelin, N. Tolstopalova

National Technical University of Ukraine “Kyiv Polytechnic Institute”, Kyiv

e-mail: m.litynska-2017@kpi.ua

The article substantiates the need for the removal of arsenic in drinking water treatment. Possible ways of arsenic compounds getting into natural waters and examples of characteristic arsenic substances for different geochemical and hydro-biological conditions are presented. Possible methods for removing arsenic from natural waters, including settling techniques (coagulation / filtration, lime softening and etc.), adsorption, ion exchange, membrane processes (microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, reverse osmosis) and others. The article shows the need to transform existing in water As(III) to As(V) and provides an overview of the possible oxidizers. Because conventional methods of arsenic removing is not effective, the development of new methods of water purification from arsenic compounds is very important. The use of compounds Fe (III) in the future may become an important part of the combined methods of arsenic compounds removing from natural waters because these compounds have oxidation and sorption properties. Perspective in the context of arsenic removing from natural waters are combinations of traditional techniques such as the adsorption / membrane filtration, the dosage of oxidants / membrane filtration, but information about present systematic research of this subject in Ukraine today is missing.

Keywords: arsenic, arsenic minerals, dearsenication, water purification.

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06.05.2016 at 3:57 pm

STABILITY INDICES AND EQUILIBRIUM CRITERIA OF CALCIUM- HYDROCARBONATE WATER SYSTEMS

V.Z. Kochmarskii

National University of Water management and Natural Resources Use, Rivne

е-mail: orest-kr@ukr.net

On the analogy of Lanjelie’s index the stability indices for components of calcium- hydrocarbonate systems (СHCS) have been introduced: H+, CO2, НСО3-, СО32- and Са2+ according to the scheme I = X/Xs, X, Xs – current and equilibrium parameter value. The procedure of indices calculation has been developed, the links between them have been determined. The simplified calculation scheme for quasiequilibrium processes for Lanjelie’s index IL = -log(H/Hs) and others has been suggested. The ratios obtained are used to experimental analysis of the processes in model СHCS. They describe logically the system behavior. 

Key words: stability indices, calcium-hydrocarbonate systems. 

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06.05.2016 at 3:53 pm

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