Water and water purification technologies

Scientific and technical news

CHARACTERIZATION AND PROSPECTS OF TITANIUM (IV) OXIDE IN WATER TREATMENT (REVIEW)

T.A. Dontsova

National Technical University of Ukraine “Kyiv Polytechnic University”, Kyiv

e-mail: dontsova@ua.fm

The prospect of using sorption materials based on titanium (IV) oxide and their characteristic in water treatment in article is discussed. It was found that in water treatment process wide application may find amorphous titanium oxide, and its crystal modifications – anatase and rutile. Characterization of amorphous titanium oxide and its crystal modifications is given. It is shown that an amorphous titanium oxide is effective sorbent for many inorganic pollutants as cationic and anionic nature; its crystal modifications – for recovery radionuclides and organic compounds of different genesis. Revealed that parameters such as the point of zero charge and intercalation significantly affect on the ion exchange properties and selectivity of sorbents based on titanium (IV) oxide. Titanium (IV) oxide surface chemistry and mechanisms of ion exchange are considered. Methods synthesis of sorbents (ion-exchange materials) and special purpose photocatalysts based on titanium (IV) oxide with specified physical and chemical properties are described. It is shown that TiO2 is a unique object for solving theoretical and applied problems of ion exchange, adsorption and photocatalysis.

Keywords: titanium (IV) oxide sorbent ion exchanger, photocatalyst, water purification.

Download (PDF)

07.04.2016 at 8:33 pm

MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF RECYCLING COOLING SYSTEMS

S.A. Kontsevoi

National Technical University of Ukraine “KPI”, Kiev

e-mail: serkon157@ukr.net

A method for determining the composition of any circulating water in cooling systems was developed basing of the proposed actual evaporation rate. The evaporation rate is a flow of evaporated water divided by a flow of loss drops at the cooling unit. The formulas for the determination of this rate in stationary conditions are given. The proposed mathematical model is confirmed by calculation comparing to the existing one, which does not allow predicting concentration factor of circulating water. The opportunity to implement stable system of automatic control using this model is given. An admissible concentration factor for CaSO4 and the method for determination of rational concentration factor for system are presented.

Keywords: evaporation rate, cooling system, mathematical model, concentration factor, flow control, acid dosing.

Download (PDF)

07.04.2016 at 8:29 pm

IMPACT OF THE CARBAMIDE ON BIOLOGICAL REMOVAL OF PHENOLS FROM SEWAGE OF THE COKE-CHEMICAL ENTERPRISE

A.V. Ivanchenko, O. A. Dupenko, N. D. Voloshin

Dneprodzerzhinsk state technical university, Dneprodzerzhinsk

e-mail: ivanche .anna@yandex.ru 

The characteristic of sewage formed at the coke plant is given. Relevance of improvement of technology for biological treatment of industrial effluents from phenols is shown. The object of definition of possibility of use of a carbamide in quality of the additive accelerating biooxidation of phenols of the increased concentration in sewage of the coke-chemical enterprises is set. Installation of bioextraction of phenols by microorganisms of active silt is created. In work photometric and titrimetrichesky methods of definition of the content of phenols and ammonia are used. As a result of researches influence of an additive of a carbamide on biooxidation of phenols in sewage of the coke-chemical enterprise, namely, dependence between the initial content of phenols, a carbamide dose, time and their final content in sewage is established. It is shown that urea as an additive influences only bioextraction of flying ammonia from sewage, but not connected. It is established that addition of a carbamide in sewage of the coke-chemical enterprises accelerates extent of biological cleaning of phenols by 1,9-3,5 times in comparison with test without use of this substance. The optimum dose of urea for application commercially at which additive there is a removal of phenols to maximum-permissible requirements is picked experimentally up, and it makes 0,5 g/dm3.

Key words: phenol, carbamide, biooxidation, sewage, ammonia, microorganisms.

Download (PDF)

07.04.2016 at 8:10 pm

RESEARCH OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE ADAPTATION TO ANAEROBIC-AEROBIC CONDITIONS OF BIOREACTORS FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT

L. Sabliy1, V. Zhukova1, G. Sobczuk2, A. Bieganowski3, G. Lagod4, K. Jaromin-Glen3

1 – National Technical University of Ukraine ‘Kyiv polytechnic Institute’, Kyiv, Ukraine;

2 – Polish Academy of Sciences, Scientific Center in Kyiv, Ukraine;

3 – Bohdan Dobrzański Institute of Agrophysics of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Lublin, Poland;

4 – Lublin University of Technology, Poland.

e-mail: larisasabliy@mail.ru

The results of experimental researches of starting of wastewater biological treatment establishment with high contaminants of organic matter, nitrogen are presented. Consecutive anaerobic and aerobic conditions, the fibrous carrier for microorganism’s immobilization in bioreactors are using.

The obtained effects of wastewater treatment on COD – 57,3%, on total nitrogen – 65,3%, on ammonium nitrogen – 70,8% present that it was confirmed effective work of microorganisms-destructors and oxidators of nitrogen.

For microorganism’s adaptation, necessary biocenoses creation and biomass growing on carrier surface in anaerobic and aerobic bioreactors duration of system work must be not less than 22 days. For this condition, the effect on COD is over 90% at initial COD – over 1000 mg/dm3.

Key words: wastewater, biological treatment, bioreactor, anaerobic conditions, aerobic conditions, carrier for microorganisms immobilization.

Download (PDF)

07.04.2016 at 8:05 pm

COMPOSITES BASED ON ACTIVATED CARBON FOR THE PURIFICATION OF WASTE WATER FROM THE CHROMIUM COMPOUNDS

I.M. Ivanenko, T.A. Dontsova, Y.P. Smitiukh

National Technical University of Ukraine “KPI”, Kyiv

e-mail: irinaivanenko@hotmail.com

Two samples of modified carbons and three samples of composite with different contents of zirconium (IV) oxide synthesized on the basis of active coal BAU. The shape and size of zirconium oxide particles formed on the carbons surface due to the homogeneous precipitation determined using electron microscopy. pH of the samples surface of synthesized composites is in the range from 6.7 to 7.2 and nonlinearly varies depending on the content of zirconium(IV) oxide. The highest value of surface pH (8.5) shows a sample of active carbon subjected to heat treatment, and less pH (6.2) shows carbon, which treated with nitric acid. The specific surface area is the smallest in the sample of initial carbon (420 m2/g), the largest (780 m2/g) is in a composite with the least content of zirconium (IV) oxide. With increasing of ZrO2 content the surface area decreases, apparently by filling the internal volume of micro- and mesopores due its homogeneous deposition. Active carbon and composites based on it are capable of ion exchange in a wide pH range from 2 to 12. The greatest point of zero charge (9.2) has initial carbon, and the lowest (3.8) has oxidized carbon. The transition from a cationic to anionic exchange occurs at pH from 7.5 to 8.2 for composites, and does not differ significantly. Compared with the original activated carbon composites with ZrO2 content 7 and 14 % show a greater adsorption capacity to the chromate ion, and when the content of ZrO2 is 28 % the composites have less active.

Key words: composite, zirconia oxide, activated carbon, chromium adsorption.

Download (PDF)

07.04.2016 at 7:56 pm

THE INFLUENCE OF OF THE MINERAL COMPOSITION OF DRINKING WATER AND POPULATION HEALTH (LITERATURE REVIEW)

I.M. Andrusyshyna

SI “Institute for Occupational Health of NAMS of Ukraine”, Kiev

e-mail: irina_andrei@voliacable.com

In the review of literature a large number of experimental and epidemiological studies showing the undoubted negative impact of water pollutants on human health is submited. So, the biogeochemical diseases caused by the use of the water containing the quantity of microcells inappropriate to physiological needs of the person (increased or lowered) often connect with biogeochemical provinces. Numerouses literature data show that the population of major cities often suffer from an surplus of heavy metals in the body, preferably from drinking water. At the same time the consumption of low-mineralized water can lead to infringement breach of a number of physiological functions of the body – the cardiovascular, endocrine, reproductive and nervous systems, changes in water-salt balance and others. High-quality water which is responsible sanitary and epidemiological requirements, is prerequisite for health preservation of people and the nation in general.

Key words: drinking water, macronutrients and trace elements of human disease.

Download (PDF)

07.04.2016 at 7:51 pm

MAGNETIC FILTERS WITH TANGENTIAL ELECTROMAGNETS FOR WATER PURIFICATION FROM MAGNETIC POLLUTIONS

V.I. Garashchenko1, I.M. Astrelin2, O.V. Garashchenko1

1National University of Water Management and Nature Recources Use, Rivne

2National Technical University of Ukraine “Kyiv Polytechnic Institute”, Kyiv

e-mail: vigarashchenko@yandex.ru

The article is devoted to the topical issue of improving magnetic filters with ferromagnetic filtering nozzles for the purification of technological water environments from ferromagnetic impurities. The article presents the results of research nature of the distribution of the magnetic field in the filtering nozzles placed in a cylindrical body between the poles of end and tangential electromagnets. Based on the studies found the relationship between parameters such as the diameter of the filter housing, electromagnet cores diameter and the distance between the cores of electromagnets, in which the ferromagnetic nozzle zones with low induction field are reduced and ensured uniformity of nozzle magnetization. The scheme of new construction of magnetic filters with tangential electromagnets which is placed on height that forming a closed magnetic circuit was shown. The proposed technical solution allows you to create the same conditions for effective deposition of magnetic impurities in the filtering nozzle. The results of experimental studies allowed to determine the constructive parameters of magnetic filters with end and tangential ferromagnetic cores of electromagnets. Featured relationship between design parameters can increase the level of nozzle magnetization in the filter volume by 10-15% and therefore the effectiveness of the water environments purification.

Keywords: magnetic filter, magnetic purification, ferromagnetic nozzle.

Download (PDF)

07.04.2016 at 7:46 pm

STUDY OF SYNTHESIS OF SOLID STATE ANTISCALANT FOR WATER TREATMENT IN REVERSE OSMOSIS TECHNOLOG

Y. Orestov, T. Mitchenko, N. Gudym

National technical university of Ukraine “KPI”, Kyiv

e-mail: e.orestov@gmail.com

 This work is devoted to the selection of the optimal characteristics of the ingredients for the synthesis of the solid state antiscalant (SSA), which is able to equally and consistently dosing of the scaling inhibitors into the stream of treated water. For this purpose, anion exchanger which shows the maximum capacity for absorption-desorption of active ingredients was chosen based on analysis of a wide range of anion exchangers as carrier of phosphonate scale inhibitor. The nature and mechanism of interaction between the components of SSA was studied. The results of the research allow to choose the optimum inhibitor for the synthesis of SSA, which is able to maximum desorption from the carrier and shows the highest resource. Dynamic studies have confirmed the efficacy and feasibility of TFA for stabilizing water treatment in reverse osmosis technology.

Keywords: antiscalants, phosphonates, anionite, scaling, reverse osmosis.

Download (PDF)

07.04.2016 at 7:35 pm