Water and water purification technologies

Scientific and technical news

MODERN MICROBIOLOGICAL TESTS AS A BASIS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY AND RESOURCE SAVING IN WATER DISINFECTION TECHNOLOGIES

S.L. Vasilenko, I.V. Korinko, E.E. Maximova

Municipal enterprise “Kharkovvodokanal”, Kharkove, Ukraine

e-mail: texvater@rambler.ru, korinko@aqua.kharkov.ua, emaximova@list.ru

This paper provides analysis of drinking water chlorination before its supply to water lines. It shows that representative system of microbiological water quality control at pumping stations and water columns enables maintenance of allowed percent of nonstandard samples at the rated level with reduction of chlorine application. This greatly reduces economic effect and provides environmental safety of municipal water supply systems and drinking water quality as of microbiological indices. This approach is applied at disinfection of drinking water of Kharkiv city (Ukraine).

Key words: drinking water, disinfection, chlorine, resource-saving.

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06.04.2016 at 6:28 pm

THE ESTIMATION OF WATER QUALITY DNIPER AND DESNA IN LARGE WATER SUPPLY POINTS

І.S. Yezlovetska, I.N. Lavrenchuk

A.V. Dumansky Institute of Colloid Chemistry and Water Chemistry of NAS ofUkraine,

PAO «АК «Кyivvоdоkаnаl»,Kyiv,Ukraine

The modern of our country classification conception and standardization of water sources quality for drinking water supply are tested by example of Kyiv areas of Dniper and Desna. This conception is based on three approaches: ecological, hygienic and technological. The specific character of water quality formation is considered in summer-autumn low water for middle by water content of hydrological period. The enumeration of index, which are certain necessary for the water quality estimation, is defined. It includes the blocks of organoleptic, general sanitary chemical, hydrobiological, microbiological, parasitological, radiation safety and toxicological indexes. First the estimation of water quality of chosen drinking water surface source for Dnieper and Desna water supply point near Kyiv is done according to hygienic and ecological criteria. The list of priority indexes of water quality, which requires the immediate attention under water treatment, is established. It is defined that the coloration, content of organic and biogenic substances, dissolved oxygen, рН, abundance and biomass of phytoplankton, microbiological and some of toxicological indexes refer to the same.

Results of carried out studies concerning estimation of Dnieper and Desna water quality in the district of water supply point of Kyiv can be used for development of measures concerning increase of technological operation efficiency on working constructions of Dnieper and Desna water supply stations.

Keywords: drinking water supply, water source quality, hygienic and ecological criteria, priority indexes.

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06.04.2016 at 6:19 pm

ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY OF AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS AND ELECTROLYTIC DISSOCIATION

A. Zapolskii

ZhytomyrNationalAgroecologicalUniversity

е-mail: zak-38@ukr.net

A new theory of electrolytic dissociation and proton-electron conductivity of aqueous solutions was proposed. It supposed to be alternative to the theory of electrolytic dissociation S. Arrhenius and ionic conductivity. In liquid state molecules of water are associated into the clusters, forming fractal cluster-clathrate structures. Number of water molecules in the cluster is not precisely determined. Obviously, their number in the cluster is variable, which depends on the temperature of the aqueous system and other factors that determine the state of the aqueous system.

Electrical conductivity and ionization of the water system components are determined by the proton-electron interaction of water clusters with each other and with dissolved and/or suspended solids in the water system. Also this parameters are strongly affected by various physical-mechanical, physical and physicochemical effects, such as change of the hydrodynamic regime of moving water, mechanical and physical factors: pressure, temperature change, sound, magnetic and electric fields, UV radiation, dissolved and suspended substances (silicates, aluminum silicates, dissolved oxygen, carbon oxide (IV), bicarbonates, calcium, magnesium, iron, etc).

The dissociation of the electrolytes in the aqueous solution not occurs spontaneously. It is carried out under the influence of chemical reactions. Therefore, in an aqueous solution free ions (cations and anions) do not exist.

Keywords: electrical conductivity, electrolytic dissociation, fractal cluster-clathrate structures.

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06.04.2016 at 6:10 pm

THE EFFECT OF THE pH ON THE ABSORPTION OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM IONS BY HYBRID ADSORBENTS BASED ON TITANIUM OXYHYDRATE AND ORGANIC ANIONITE

T.V. Maltseva 1, A.V. Palchik 1, T.V. Yatsenko 1, S.L. Vasilyuk 1, V.O. Shablovski 2

1 – Vernadsky Institute of general and inorganic chemistry NAS Ukraine,Kiev,Ukraine

2 – Research Institute for Physical-Chemical Problems of theBelarusianStateUniversity,

Minsk, Belarus

e-mail: maltseva@ionc.kiev.ua

Studied the absorption of hexavalent chromium ions by hybrid ion exchange materials synthesized from 0.1-1.0 mM K2Cr2O7 solution without changing the acidity of solutions and with adding a solution of nitric acid to the initial pH = 2.4-2.7.For hybrid materials containing ~ 7, 24 and 36% by weight of titanium hydroxide, changing absorption capacity of components relative to hexavalent chromium ions, in particular, the distribution coefficient is according to the rule of additivity.With the addition of nitric acid pH = 2.4 in the initial solutions K2Cr2O7 for a hybrid sorbent containing ~ 36% by weight of titanium hydroxide, found a non-additive increase in the value of the distribution coefficient of hexavalent chromium ions. The degree of non-additivity of absorption capacity the ion exchange material increases significantly as the concentration of the solution.

Keywords: hybrid materials, titanium hydroxide, chromium ions, distribution coefficient, additivity.

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06.04.2016 at 6:04 pm

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