Water and water purification technologies

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EFFICIENCY OF ACTIVATED CARBON REGENERATION AFTER THE LONG-TERM EXPLOITATION IN FILTERS FOR TAP WATER POST-TREATMENT

L. Savchyna

InstituteofColloidChemistry and Water Chemistry (NationalAcademyof Sciences ofUkraine), Kyiv,Ukraine

e-mail: savchyna.l@gmail.com

Predominately mesoporous structured activated carbon is the best sorbent for the natural organic matter extraction from water. Mesoporous activated carbons KAU, KAU-TF and BAU were used in the adsorption filters for tap water post-treatment for a long time (more than three years). Structural-adsorptive characteristics of these carbons were estimated in the paper. The spontaneous bioregeneration takes place on the activated carbon surface. It is caused by the biofilm formation during water filtration in non-sterile conditions. As a result of this process active carbon adsorption parameters are restored, namely the part of the AC unoccupied total specific surface area is 61,1-82,9 % of the initial value, the part of the unoccupied total adsorption pore volume is 59,0-87,2 %, whereas the value of unoccupied effective supermicro- and mesopores surface can be up to 69,3-98,2%. Active carbon samples treatment with sodium hydroxide leads to a partial release of the micropores adsorption volume especially in the lower carbon bed layers by water passing. Spontaneous activated carbon bioregeneration under filtration of ozonated tap water runs more efficiently than bioregeneration after a non-ozonated water filtration under the same organic matter load on the AC. Efficiency improving of spontaneous bioregeneration after a pre-ozonated tap water filtration is caused by the transformation of organic substances molecules into a form that is more accessible to the functioning of native biofilm.

Keywords: active carbon, bioregeneration, tap water, native biofilm, eluent regeneration.

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19.07.2013 at 4:24 pm

EFFECTIVE TECHNOLOGY OF BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF HIGH CONCENTRATED WASTEWATER

L. Sabliy

National university of water management and nature resources use,Rivne,Ukraine

e-mail: larisasabliy@mail.ru

It is presented the results of plant researches of anaerobic-aerobic wastewater treatment with high contaminants of organic matter with using the fibrous carrier for microorganisms immobilization. In the using proposed technology it can achieved high oxidation capacity of bioreactors in COD, g/(m3∙day), with decrease at degree of wastewater treatment in the system of anaerobic-aerobic bioreactors: in anaerobic І and ІІ, respectively, – 6200 and 3400; in anoxidic І and ІІ, respectively, – 800 and 400; aerobic – 100; at concentrations of immobilized biomass on carriers, г/дм3, in anaerobic conditions – 20-30, anoxidic – to 15 and aerobic – to 6.

On pilot plant establishment it was obtained the high results of wastewater treatment: effect on COD – 96-98,8%, on suspended solids – 98,5-99%, on ammonium nitrogen – 98-100%; the concentrations in treated water: COD – 19-66 mg/dm3,  ammonium nitrogen – 0-0,49 mg/dm3, nitrites – 0,03 mg/dm3, nitrates – 15,8 mg/dm3, respond to norms.

In the results of eating biomass bacterial part by hydrobionts of high trofical levels of  bioreactors biocenose it is provided reduction of biomass amount, increasing its mineralization (over 50%) and reduction of wastes treatment costs.

 Key words: wastewater, biological treatment, bioreactor, anaerobic conditions, aerobic condition, carrier for microorganisms immobilization.

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19.07.2013 at 4:18 pm

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PRINCIPLES OF ACTION OF REVERSE OSMOSIS MEMBRANE FOULING INHIBITORS AND METHODS OF OPTIMAL USAGE THEREOF

Е. Orestov, Т. Mitchenko

National technical university of Ukraine “KPI”, Kyiv, Ukraine

e-mail: e.orestov@gmail.com 

The article provides an overview of the two major classes of modern inhibitors of reverse osmosis membrane element fouling used in water treatment processes, namely the phosphonate compounds and polymer acrylic acid derivatives with different functional groups. The brief characteristics of different types of fouling — colloidal, organic, inorganic and biofouling are given. Special attention is paid to physical and chemical principles of the formation of crystals of sparingly soluble salts from supersaturated solutions and the deposition of these crystals on the surface of the membrane (the phenomenon of scaling), and the factors that affect the scaling. The main mechanisms of action of inhibitors of various classes — threshold effect, effect of deformation and effect of dispersion are described. Physical and chemical factors that determine the effectiveness of the threshold effect inhibitors are analyzed. A list of the main representatives of phosphonate and polymeric reagents, range and principle of action, advantages and disadvantages of each are given, and main modern commercial antiscalants produced with the use of these reagents are mentioned. The information on the forms and methods of application of modern antiscalant reagents is given with focus on use of different filter materials, primarily ion exchange resins, as carriers of antiscalant chemicals.

Keywords: fouling, threshold effect, phosphonates, polyacrylates, reverse osmosis.

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19.07.2013 at 4:12 pm

DETERMINATION OF CORRELATION FACTORS AFFECTING SOURCE WATER QUALITY ACCORDING DNEPROVSKIE WATER INTAKES KYIV

D. Charniy1, I. Kuzmych 2
1 -  Institute of Water Problems and Land Reclamation NAASU, Kyiv, Ukraine
e-mail: dmitriych10@gmail.com

2 – Kyiv National University of Construction and Architecture, Kyiv, Ukraine
e-mail: egor_ks@i.ua

The largest rivers are the main source of water supply in Ukraine. Specific changes of water quality in main water supply sources are taking place due to climate fluctuation. There are changes in the nature of phytoplankton as well, which make existing water treatment plants work with difficulties. There is analyzed long-term research of water quality in Kyiv water intake during the period of active vegetation phytoplankton in this article. It was studied data from 2006 to 2011, years before the temperature jumped from 1983 to 1985 were taken for comparing. It was analyzed the relationship between color, turbidity, phytoplankton and its components, temperature, nutrients. They were taken the base correlations between each of the elements listed in the form of correlation matrices. It was made checking for compliance data distribution – normal. Correlation was determined by Pirsonm and Spearman. Based on these correlations the requirements for treatment facilities in accordance with the current temperature trend. One of the main conclusion is necessity to improve the ability of barrier structures for remove phytoplankton, manganese, soluble organic matter, color, and ability to provide such facilities to aeration source water.

Keywords: Phytoplankton, correlation, temperature, nitrate, nitrite, oxygen, water, pH, turbidity, color.

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19.07.2013 at 3:58 pm

WATER AS A SOURCE OF DISTRIBUTION OF MICROSCOPIC FUNGI

M.N. Saprykina1, А.V. Rudenko2, N.M. Makoday1, V.V. goncharuk1

1- Institute colloid chemistry and chemistry of water of A.V.Dumansky NAN Ukraine, Kiev

2- Institute urology AMN Ukraine,Kiev,Ukraine

e-mail: saprikinam@yandex.ru 

Presence of opportunistic micromycetes in superficial reservoirs and water distribution networks is revealed. Presence of fungi of species Penicillium, Aspergillus, Alternaria, Cladosporium as in superficial waters, in quantity from 3 cfu/100 sm3 to 10 cfu/100 sm3, and in the water distribution networks which number fluctuates from 2 cfu/100 sm3 to 5 cfu/100 sm3 is shown. Predominant yeast-like micromycetes such as Candida albicans, Rhodotorula glutines, etc. in limits from 1·102 cfu/100 sm3 to 1·105 cfu/100 sm3 in superficial reservoirs and to 50 cfu/100 sm3 in water distribution networks is noted. Influence of temperature, organic substances on quantitative growth micromycetes is established.

Keywords: superficial waters, water distribution networks, monitoring, micromycetes, sanitary-indicative microorganisms.

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19.07.2013 at 3:46 pm

HYDRODINAMIC MODEL OF BIOREACTORS WITH IMMOBILIZED MICROORGANISMS AT WASTEWATER TREATMENT

L. Sabliy

National university of water management and nature resources use,Rivne,Ukraine

e-mail: larisasabliy@mail.ru

With the purpose of provision of necessary mass exchange it is developed new constructions of anaerobic and aerobic bioreactors with fibrous carriers for microorganisms immobilization. Constructive peculiarity of anaerobic bioreactor is the mixing system with using of pump, recirculated pipe and perforated pipe which is placed along of the central line of bioreactor. Developed constructions aerobic bioreactors lineament is along of central line of cylindrical plant placing of perforated piping for provision of air and intensive mass transfer between wastewater and immobilization hydrobionts on carriers and creating suspended condition for loosely swimming particles of activated sludge. It is proposed the model for calculation of laminar flow parameters for this constructions.

Developed mathematical model give a possibility to estimate the constructive elements of bioreactors such as plant dimension, perforated piping diameter and linear, perforation dimension at project works, reconstruction and building of wastewater stations on anaerobic-aerobic technology with immobilized microorganisms biocenos on the fibrous carriers.  

Key words: wastewater, biological treatment, bioreactor.

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19.07.2013 at 3:38 pm

REMOVING OF SUBSTANCES THAT INFLUENCE THE HORMONAL SYSTEM OF LIVING ORGANISMS FROM THE WASTE WATERS USING TRADITIONAL WATER-TREATMENT METHODS

R. Mesarosh1, S. Barany1, 2

1 – University of Miskolc, Institute of Сhemistry, 3515 Miskolc-Egyetemváros, Hungary

2 – Ferenc Rákóczi II Transcarpathian Hungarian Institute,Beregovo,Ukraine

e-mail: sbarany@uni-miskolc.hu

The article obtains a broad literature review on issue of drinking and industrial waste waters treatment. Substances that strongly impact on the hormonal system of living organisms (Endocrine Disrupting Compounds or EDC-type substances) are mostly in a focus. Composition/structure of the most typical substances, affecting hormonal balance of man and their classification are given. The paths of getting the indicated matters into environment are described. The short analysis of difficulties of analytical determination of EDC-substances are given. The basic methods of this kind pollutants removing from different types of water are critically considered: coagulation, adsorption on activated carbon, oxidization, biological and membrane methods, ozone and chlorine. The article contains 25 references.

Keywords: substances, hormonal system, living organisms, composition and classification, sewages, treatment, coagulation, adsorption, activated carbon, destruction, ozone, chlorine, biological treatment, membrane methods. 

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19.07.2013 at 3:22 pm

MAGNETIC PROCESSING OF WATER IN POWER HEAT ENERGETICS

O.V. Mosin

MoscowStateUniversityof applied biotechnology,Moscow,Russia

 e-mail: mosin-oleg@yandex.ru

In present paper is submitted the review on perspective modern trends and approaches in practical realisation of anti-scale magnetic processing of water in power heat energetics and adjacent industries, including water processing for elimination of scale (carbonate, chloride and sulphatic salts Ca2 +, Mg2 +, Fe2 + and Fe3 +) in heat equipment, pipelines and sanitary systems. Principles of physical influence of magnetic field on water, parametres of physical and chemical processes proceeding in water, and behaviour of dissolved salts of rigidity in subjected to magnetic processing water are considered. It is shown, that magnetic field influence on water has a complex multifactorial character. The design features of devices of magnetic processing of water let out by the industry on constants and electromagnets – hydromagnetic systems (HMS), magnetic converters and magnetic activators of water are examined. It is given efficiency of using devices of magnetic processing of water in water preparation.

Keywords: water, magnetic processing, rigidity of water.

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19.07.2013 at 3:01 pm

CALCULATION OF Mn2+ IONS REMOVAL WITH SORBENT-CATALYST USING

 

N.N. Chernova, A.V. Mamchenko

Dumansky Institute of Colloid and Water Chemistry of the NAS ofUkraine,Kiev,Ukraine

e-mail: notochka@ukr.net

New sorbent-catalyst using in water treatment technology from manganese compounds allows get qualitative water that satisfies present quality requirements. Salt content of doubly charged ions such as calcium, magnesium and sulphates on sorbent-catalyst efficiency in article was explored. It was established that singly ions of sodium chlorides and doubly charged hardness ions influence on residual concentration of manganese compounds in liquid phase. It was found that influence of doubly charged ions on water purification form manganese compounds with sorbent-catalyst using was substantial. Calcium and potassium carbonates leaching from sorbent-catalyst was confirmed. The solution pH value increased to optimal for manganese compounds removal range within sorbent-catalyst contact time. Experimental data with fitted coefficients were described by proposed theoretical model. The theoretical model makes it possible to calculate pH value, solution air oxygen saturation and salt content influence on water treatment from manganese compounds with sorbent-catalyst using.

Key words: sorbent-catalyst, salt content, doubly charged ions, hardness ions, ionic strength, theoretical model.

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19.07.2013 at 2:31 pm

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