Water and water purification technologies

Scientific and technical news

THE STUDY OF WATER PURIFICATION BY SORPTION FROM AMMONIUM ION FOR TRANSPORT CONTAINERS FOR THE TRANSPORT OF FISH

V.O. Shablovski1, A.V. Tuchkovskaya1, S.L. Vasilyuk2

1- Research Institute for Physical-Chemical Problems of theBelarusianStateUniversity,

Minsk,Belarus

2- Vernadsky Institute of general and inorganic chemistry NAS Ukraine,Kiev,Ukraine

e-mail: shablovski@bsu.by

The research results related to the problem of removing ammonia nitrogen from transport containers for the transport of fish.

It was found that the survival of aquatic organisms during transport affected by a number of factors, chief among which is the accumulation of waste products. Released into the water the fish waste products and final products of oxidation lead to a change in the active response of the medium. The sharp change in pH may lead to loss of fish.

We have investigated the removal of ammonia nitrogen by different materials to determine the most effective sorbent.

For the implementation of the task were studied cation-exchange resin KU-2×8 in the hydrogen form, cation-exchange resin KU-2×8 in sodium form, zeolite sorbent FLAM and activated carbon AG-3. It is shown that the most effective sorbent was zeolite sorbent FLAM. It was determined value of the sorption capacity under static and dynamic conditions, including in the presence salts of hardness. We are solved the problem of sorbent FLAM regeneration.

Keywords: ammonia nitrogen, zeolite sorbent FLAM, sorption capacity, ion exchange.

05.04.2016 at 4:37 pm

DEVELOPMENT OF INDUSTRIAL PROCESS OF SAFE WATER DISINFECTION WITH NON-OXIDIZING BIOCIDE

M. Sus, Т. Mitchenko, N. Makarova

NationalTechnicalUniversityofUkraine”KPI “,Kiev

e-mail: msus87@gmail.com

The conditions of the technological implementation of the process of water disinfection using polyhexamethyleneguanidine (PHMG) followed by removal of reagent excess by macroporous weak acid cation-exchange resin (CER) were studied. The principal possibility of PHMG removal with different forms (H+, Na+) of CER to the value of the residual concentration of the reagent 0.1 mg/L in multicycle process was shown. It was demonstrated that the proposed technology provides an effective biocide removal from the water and does not lead to its secondary microbial contamination. It was ascertained  that PHMG recovered during regeneration maintains its biocidal properties and can be used for disinfection of water in a closed circuit process. The basic technological schemes of the process of PHMG removal were developed: single-stage scheme with one-time use of CER and a closed-cycle scheme with absorption-regeneration mode and PHMG reuse. According to data obtained during mathematical modeling and engineering-and-economical calculations optimal conditions for the process of PHMG removal were formulated. The choice of ionic form of CER and technological schemes of the process according to the object of disinfection was establish.

Keywords: disinfection of the water, biocide, PHMG, weak acid cation-exchange resin, sorption, regeneration, total microbial count (TMC).

05.04.2016 at 4:29 pm

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF HUMIC COMPAUNDS REMOVAL FROM RIVER DNIEPER WATER BY DIFFERENT TYPES OF ULTRAFILTRATION MEMBRANES

O.Svietlieisha, T. Mitchenko

NationalTechnicalUniversityofUkraine“KPI”,Kiev,Ukraine

esvetleishaya@gmail.com

 

High natural organic matter, suspended solids microorganisms and algae content are typical for surface water. Natural organic matter content in river water can lead to a substantial surface fouling of ultrafiltration membranes and cause its irreversible contamination. This publication presents investigation on influence of properties and type of membrane on efficiency of natural organic matter removal and membrane fouling. Natural organic matter removal efficiency was controlled by following parameters: permanganate oxidation, color and adsorption UV 254. This paper also presents results of a study of the molecular weight distribution of humic substances in the feed river water and ultrafiltration permeate. For the study were selected ultrafiltration membranes of three different types, namely hollow fiber, tubular and thin film. The results showed that the lowest tendency to irreversible contamination have hollow fiber and tubular membranes with specific surface hydrophilicity. However, flat membrane with high hydrophilicity has the highest inclination to irreversible contamination.

Key words: ultrafiltration, humic substances, hollow fiber membranes, tubular membranes, flat sheet membranes.

05.04.2016 at 4:24 pm

PERSPECTIVES OF USING NATURAL FULLERENE CONTAINING MINERAL SHUNGITE IN WATER PROSSESSING

PERSPECTIVES OF USING NATURAL FULLERENE CONTAINING MINERAL SHUNGITE IN WATER PROSSESSING

O. V. Mosin

MoscowStateUniversityof applied biotechnology,Moscow,Russia,

e-mail: mosin-oleg@yandex.ru

I. I. Ignatov

Scientific Research Center of Medical Biophysics, Sofia, Bulgaria, e-mail: mbioph@dir.bg

In present paper the composition and structural properties of amorphous, uncrystallized, fulleren analogious carbon containing natural mineral – shungite, from depositZazhoginskoein Karelia (Russian Federation), possessing high absorptional, catalitic and bactericidal activity are submitted. There are given data about nanostructure, obtained with the using of scanning electronic microscopy, and physico-chemical properties of this mineral. Prospects of using shungite as a sorbent in water-prosrssing and water purification and other industries are demonstrated.

Key words: shungate, sorbent, nanostructure, fullerens, water prosessing. 

05.04.2016 at 4:18 pm

MODERN REPRESENTATIONS ON THE STRUCTURE AND CONDUCTIVITY OF WATER

A.K. Zapolsky *, K.D. Pershina **, A.I. Gerasymchuk *** K.A. Kazdobin ***

* Zhytomyr National Agroecological University

** Vernadsky Taurida National University

*** Vernadsky Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry. NAS Ukraine

e-mail: Kazdobin@ionc.kiev.ua

Overview of the state-of-art representations of water structure and its electrical conductivity are  given from the standpoint of its heterogeneous structure. The water structure is fractal, it has water molecules coupled together in clusters with some variable quantity. Clusters are alternating with voids (holes). Basic structural element of cluster is a tetrahedron.

The formation of large clusters, presence of Brownian motion and impact of various physical factors (turbulization of water, the effect of electromagnetic fields, pressure, sound, etc.) lead to the destruction of hydrogen bonds, which explains the small duration of cluster existence (10-13 s); so-called “blinking clusters” are formed which are in continuous spontaneous interaction with other clusters or individual water molecules. In their interactions OH radicals and Н3О+ 5О2+) can form which lead to the formation of hydrogen peroxide, H2O2, atomic hydrogen, and new clusters. Structure of water can be stabilized by dissolved gases and substances that also interact with clusters and individual water molecules.

Consequently, the transfer of electrical charges in water occurs by mixed proton – electron conductivity resulting from spatial charge separation in supramolecular structures. Therefore, the classical fundamentals of electrical conductivity as a consequence of the reorganization of the solvent is realized in water as the formation of distributed charges in the “oxonia (Н3О+) or OH-ions – solvated electrons”, and such conductivity coming from the formation of such pairs is the exciton.

Keywords: water, cluster, conductivity.

05.04.2016 at 4:11 pm

THEORETICAL PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATION OF SOLVENT SUBLATION: A REVIEW

 

I.M. Astrelyn, T.I. Obushenko, N.M. Tolstopalova, O.O. Targonska

NationalTechnicalUniversityofUkraine”Kiev Polytechnic Institute”,Kiev

e-mail: tio63@mail.ru

The article presents the basic theoretical principles, the formulation of mathematical models and detailed presentation of the areas of application of the method of solvent sublation together with a description of the relevant works of researchers from different countries. To date, there is not enough effective method for pre-concentration, separation or purification of aqueous solutions of target components or contaminants that would allow reducing the consumption of reagents and allowed to work with large volumes of dilute aqueous solutions. This method combines the advantages of flotation and extraction. So solvent sublation allows to use small amounts of organic solvents and can effectively concentrate the matter for further purposes. The main factors that affect the process are pH, type of organic solvent, ionic strength, surfactant, temperature, rate of gas bubbling. Above these and other conditions of the process many scientists are working and at this stage of is study it is already known and proven main key parameters that can predict the effectiveness solvent sublation on its use for different purposes. Among the numerous applications is solvent sublation previous sample preparation to analysis, the concentration of noble metals, extraction of herbal components, separation of important enzymes of solutions, wastewater treatment from organic substances, toxic elements, dyes and detergents. Promising areas of application is the use of this method for the synthesis of nanoparticles of various materials.

Keywords: solvent sublation, sublate, adsorption, metal ions, surfactant, pH, bubble, concentration, wastewater, mathematical model.

05.04.2016 at 3:30 pm

EXTRACTION OF HEAVY ISOTOPES OF DEUTERIUM, TRITIUM AND OXYGEN

O. Mosin, I. Ignatov

1 –MoscowStateUniversityof applied biotechnology,Moscow,Russia

e-mail: mosin-oleg@yandex.ru

2 – ScientificResearchCenterfor Medical Biophisics,Sofia,Bulgaria

In present paper theoretical and scientific-practical questions of clearing of drinking water from heavy isotopes D, T and 18О are considered. Studies of isotopic effects of deuterium on cells of various organisms of microbic, plant and animal origin are carried out, the conclusion is made as a result drawn on complex multifactorial influence of deuterium on an organism. Designs of the devices, allowing to receive the water depleted on 5–30 % of deuterium are given. There are cited own data and available in the sientific literature data on positive influence of deuterium depleted water on an organism.      

Keywords: deuterium, tritium, oxygen–18, heavy water, deuterium depleted water.

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22.07.2013 at 8:23 am

EXPERIENCE OF MODERN APPROACHES TO NATURAL WATER QUALITY ESTIMATION FOR THE PREDICTION OF TECHNOLOGICAL METHODS OF ITS CONDITIONING

І.S. Yezlovetska

A.V.Dumansky Institute of Colloid Chemistry and Water Chemistry of NAS of Ukraine, Kiyv

 honch@iccwc.kiev.ua 

The three basic approaches to estimation of water quality of drinking water supply according to hygienical and ecological criteria are grounded and used. The specific character of formation conditions of river waters quality is considered for chosen water objects. Their present state and degree of ecological prosperity according to integral indexes is estimated. Possibility of the usage of this water objects as potential sources for drinking water supply of rural population is established. The prediction necessity of water quality in the explored rivers basins is finded out depending on hydrological periods. The priority indexes of water quality, which are needed the application of the special technological decision are defined. The enumeration of modern natural water treatment methods is offered for contents correction of contaminating matters.

The experience concerning of modern approaches use to estimation of natural water quality is presented in the paper. There is recommended for the creation of multistage technologies for drinking water treatment with usage of biological and physical methods to prevent the disinfection by-products formation.

Keywords: water quality, hygienical and ecological criteria, priority indexes, methods of water treatment.

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19.07.2013 at 4:49 pm

ON ASSESSMENT OF THE QUALITY OF DRINKING TAP WATER IN INDUSTRIAL CITY FOR LONG PERIOD

S.V. Kapranov, G.G. Krivutsa

State Establishment  “Alchevsk city sanitary and epidemiological station Luhansk Region”

Communal Enterprise “Alchevsk Industrial management of water supply and sanitation”

Alchevsk,Ukraine

e-mail: Kapranova-volkova@rambler.ru 

The modern condition of the problem of population supply by good-quality of drinking water is presented in the article. Hygienic assessment of quality for drinking tap water of industry city Alchevsk for long-term period was executed. It was found that the main risk to the health of children and adults in connection with the use of drinking water in the raw form, due to its high level of total hardness, mineralization, sulfates and chlorides. It was shown that the quality of tap water mainly depends on the quality of water in the central water supply sources. The problems for priority implementation of measures to improve the supply and quality of drinking water were identified.

The measures to improve water quality and prevent diseases of children and adults from exposure to the water factor were developed.

Key words: drinking water quality, total hardness, mineralization, sulfates and chlorides.

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19.07.2013 at 4:40 pm

ENVIRONMENTAL AND HYGIENIC MONITORING OF PERCHLORATES IN WATERS OF DIFFERENT USE IN UKRAINE

І. Andrusishyna

SI” Institute for Occupational HealthNAMS”,Kiev,Ukraine

e-mail: irina_andrei@voliacable.com

The problem of anthropogenic pollution of the water environment by perchlorate (Pch) and its effect on the human health is discussed in the papers. Also, the physical-chemical methods of Pch determination, which can be used for analyses in various waters, are critically considered. The results of pilot researches on the content of studying Pch in drinking and natural waters in Kiev and some other regions of Ukraine are shown. The comparative assessment of determining Pch by indirect method of atomic absorption (AAS) and method of ion-exchange chromatography (IX) is given. The average content of Pch exceeded the ЕРА standards by 4-400 times in Kiev area and by 12-23 times in other regions of Ukraine. The preferential contamination of the water with Pch in the wells was determined. The high content of Pch in natural water of eastern regions of Ukraine was revealed. The obtained data can be used for revising hygienic standards for Pch in the drinking water.

Key words: perchlorate, physical-chemical methods, drinking and natural waters.

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19.07.2013 at 4:32 pm

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